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Nau’o’i Da Salailan Fassara A Idon Masana Da Manazarta (3)

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A takaice dai, bai dace ba a yi amfani da wannan salo a aikin fassara. Saboda yin amfani da salon ba zai haifar da komi ba sai barnar ma’ana da kuma karya dokokin harshen fassara ba. Ke nan aikin baban giwa aka yi ba fassara ba. Saboda haka, da muguwar rawa gara kin takawa, domin kuwa samar da ingantacciyar ma’ana shi ne ginshikin aikin fassara.

3.2 Fassara Kai Tsaye Wannan salon fassara ne da ba ya la’akari da zuzzurfar ma’anar kalmomi da

jimloli. Salo ne da yake daukar ma’ana ta waje. Sannan ba ya la’akari da yadda kalmomi suke sauya ma’ana a cikin jimloli daban-daban, wato ma’anar da kalma ta shahara da ita ake dauka kai tsaye ba tare da tunanin wani sauyi ba Sarbi (2008:89-90). Wannan kuwa ya saba wa nazarin ma’ana na dukkan harsuna. Saboda ta fuskar ma’ana kalmomi suna sauya wa gwargwadon irin jimlolin da aka gina da su. Misali, kalmar Zafi da takwararta Hit da kuma dauka da takwararta taking wato daukar Zafi da taking Hit, kamar a ce:

Ya dauki zafi. Wannan jimla tana da ma’anoni akalla guda biyu. Idan mutum ne yake magana sannan ya dauki zafi, to ana nufin, he talks loudly, successibely and successfully. Idan kuwa mota ce ta dauki zafi, to ana nufin, the driber is bery fast/speedy. Kuma sai a lura cewa, dangane da mota, waccan jimla ba ma’anarta daya da mota ta yi zafi ba, domin idan mota ta yi zafi, wannan na nufin the engine is hot. Ke nan, watakila akwai matsala ga lagireto ko fanka. Saboda irin wannan sauyin ma’ana da kalmomi suke samu a cikin jimloli, ya sa wannan salo na fassara yake da cikas.

Domin matukar ba za a yi la’akari da irin wannan sauyi ba, to sau da ya wa ba za a mayar da daidaitacciyar ma’ana ko makusanciyar ma’ana cikin harshen fassara ba. Shi ne ya sa ake ganin cewa wannan salon fassarar da na kalma da kalma, duka tafiyarsu daya. Bambancin da yake tsakaninsu kawai shi ne, shi wannan salon (fassara kai tsaye) ba ya la’akari da yawan kalmomin da suke tushen fassara, balle ma a yi tunanin daidaituwar yawansu da na harshen fassara. To amma dai salon yana yin la’akari da ma’anar kalmoni da jimloli ta waje ce kurum wato ta fili misali:

Hausa: Zazzabin ya ci karfinsa

Ingilishi: The feber ate his strength. Maimakon:

Ingilishi: The feber weighed him down.

Kodayake ana iya fahintar bayanan da aka fassara da wannan salo, amma tilas za a fahinci cewa asalin sakon ba a wannan harshen yake ba, wato za a gane cewa fassara ce aka yi. Ingantacciyar fassara kuwa, ba a iya gano harshen da yake kunshe da bayani na asali.

Misali:

Hausa: Cika bakinsa zai kai shi ya baro

Ingilishi: His mouth filling takes him and leabes him there.

Duk wanda yake fahintar Hausa da Ingilishi, nan take zai iya gane cewa an yi fassarar ce daga Hausa zuwa ingilishi amma ba daga Ingilishi zuwa Hausa ba. Idan kuwa mai fassara ya ce: His ostentatious speech will put him into trouble, to da wahala a gane wane harshe ne tushen fassara kuma wanne ne harshen fassara. Hakan ya kasance ne saboda an yi amfani da kowane harshe a bisa al’adarsu.

Ana iya amfani da salon fassara kai tsaye wajen fassara wasu jimloli, gajeru da ma dogwaye. Misali:

Hausa: Zan ci abincina da safe.

Ingilishi: I will eat my food in the morning.

Hausa: Ku zo mu tafi kasuwa.

Ingilishi: Come, let us go to the market.

Kodayake ana iya fassara gajeru da dogwayen ta yin amfani da fassara kai tsaye, duk da haka, yawancin jimloli, saukaka da tsaurara, ba sa fassaruwa ta wannan salo. Misali:

Ingilishi: See you later

Hausa: Zan gan ka an jima (= sai an jima) Ka ga a nan jimla ta cikin tushen fassara tana da ma’ana, kuma turken ma’anarta shi ne yin bankwana. Kodayake ita ma jimlar harshen fassara tana da ma’ana, amma tana da harshen damo kamar haka:

Za mu hadu idan an jima

Zan sallame ka ko Zan ba ka wani abu idan an jima Hakika, babu daya daga cikinsu da ma’anarta ta yi daidai da ma’anar tushen fassara. Ko kusa ma ba ta yi ba. Sai dai a ce:

Sai an jima. Ko sai mun gaisa ko Allah ya ba mu alheri.

Idan aka yi amfani da fassara kai tsaye ga saukakan jimloli kuma an kasa  samun ingantaccen sakamako, wannan ya nuna cewa ko kadan ba za a yi amfani  da salon ba wajen fassara maganganun hikima. Idan kuwa har aka yi amfani da  shi, to ba za a taba samun ko da makusanciyar ma’ana ba, balle ma daidaitacciya. Saboda kalmomin da suke cikin maganar hikima suna sauya ma’anonin da aka san su da su, zuwa wasu ma’anonin daban. Shi kuwa salon fassara kai tsaye  yana yin la’akari ne da ma’anar daidaikun kalmomi kamar yadda aka san su maimakon ya yi la’akari da su a jimlace kuma bisa al’adar masu harshen. Misali:

Bai yanke hukunci ba sai  da ya ciza ya busa Idan za a yi fassara kai tsaye sai a ce:

He passed the judgment after he chewed and blew  Ana ganin za a iya samun wata ma’ana a wannan jimla ta harshen fassara. To sai dai  ba za ta yi daidai  da wadda take cikin tushen fassara ba. Saboda an yi fassarar ce kai tsaye, wato ba tare da ginawa ko yin amfani da zabin kalmomin ba. Zai fi dacewa a ce:

He passed the judgment after critical constitution.

Ga alama  shi ne ya sa Nida (1969) ya bayyana cewa wajibi ne mai fassara ya bi wasu matakai uku domin kauce wa fassara kai tsaye, ba tare da gina zabi ba. Mataki na farko shi ne, bayyana harsunan da fassara ta shafa, (ko da kuwa a zuci ne). Sai dai kafin mai fassara ya iya yin irin wannan bayani Nida (1969) ya ce  wajibi ne ya kware  da harsunan biyu kuma ya san al’adun masu harsunan sannan ya fahinci irin yadda kalmomi suke sauyawa a tsakanin harsuna biyu. Misali:

Dangantakar ta yi tsami: A Ingilishi tsami na nufin sour to amma duk wanda ya kware da Ingilishi babu dama ya ce:

The relationship is sour. Sai dai ya ce:

The relationship is bitter. Duk kuwa da cewa kalmomin biyu, tsami a Hausa da kuma daci a Ingilishi kishiyoyin juna ne. Amma sai su bayyana cikin Hausa da Ingilishi kowaccensu domin bayyana cewa, dangantakar ta sukurkuce/Ba a jituwa. Ke nan kowacce daga cikin kalmomin biyu ta samu sauyin ma’ana gwargwadon bukata. (A duba Sarbi, 2005:135).

Armstrong (2005:147) ya bayyana cewa, Binary da Darbelnet suna ganin salon fassara kai tsaye ba zai aiwatu ba. Shi kuwa Armstrong, a wannan shafin dai, nunawa ya yi cewa rashin yin amfani da salon a fagen fassara tushe ne na matsalolin fassara. Amma Sarbi (2008) gani yake yi za a iya yin fassara kai tsaye, to amma ba a kowane lokaci/yanayi ba. Akwai bayanan da ba za su fassaru daidai ba ta wannan hanya. Sannan kuma duka bayanan da za a iya fassarawa da salon fassara kai tsaye za su fassaru da salon fassara mai ‘yanci. Saboda haka yin watsi da salon fassara kai tsaye ba zai haifar da kowace irin matsala ba.

Dukkan wadannan bayani, suna nuna irin illolin da suke tattare da yin amfani da fassara kai tsayte, musamman wajen fassara tsauraran jimloli da kuma maganganun hikima. To amma idan haka ne, mene ne ya sa masu ilimin harsuna,  masamman bangaren fassara, suka ga dacewar shigar da wannan salo cikin salailan fassara? Ga alama, amsa ma fi sauki ita ce, domin a fahinci

irin illolin salon, kuma a kauce wa mayar da hankali kansa. Domin duk abin da ba a fahinci illolinsa ba, babu mamaki a fada masa kuma ya yi illar.

Idan kuma wannan illa ta tabbata, to an rusa baki dayan manufar da ta sa aka yi fassarar.

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